An Overview of Mexico: Maps, Flags, Facts, and History

old car in mexican city

Mexico is a country located in North America. The United States borders it to the north and Belize and Guatemala to the south. The country is known for its rich cultural heritage, varied geography, and delicious food. Mexico has a population of more than 125 million people, comprised of indigenous peoples, Spaniards, ethnic groups, and immigrants from around the world. The country has a mixed economy and is a significant source of the world’s oil and silver. Mexico is also home to many ancient ruins.


Mexico has a varied geography of deserts, mountains, tropical forests, and beaches. The highest peak in Mexico is Pico de Orizaba, which is over 18,000 feet tall! There are two major mountain ranges. The Sierra Madre Oriental mountain range is located in the east of the country, while the Sierra Madre Occidental is in the western part of the country. The Rio Grande flows from Texas and forms part of the border between Mexico and the United States. Mexico has a long coastline along the Pacific Ocean to the west and the Gulf of Mexico to the east, and there are many beautiful beaches on both of the country’s coasts. Mexico is also home to many volcanoes, including Popocatepetl, which is still active today. The Yucatán Peninsula is on the country’s southeastern coastline. The area once was home to members of the Maya civilization, and many ruins and evidence of Mayans still abound in the region.


The people of Mexico are an essential part of its rich culture. Mexico’s population comes from many different backgrounds and there is a mix of indigenous, Spanish, and other influences in the population. The native peoples of Mexico have a long and exciting history, and many still preserve their traditional ways of life and customs. Mexicans value family, and their children are often raised in close-knit communities where friends and extended family surround them. Mexican people are also known for their warm hospitality, delicious food, and love of music and dance. Mexico is a colorful and vibrant country, and its people make it a special place to visit and live.


Few other countries support as many different plant and wildlife species as can be found in Mexico! Mexico’s varied natural life is in part because of where it is located between the Equator and the Arctic Circle. Migratory animals come through the country as they flee the deep cold to the north or the extreme heat to the south. Deserts in the northern part of Mexico have adapted to the harsh conditions. In the waters off of the country’s west coast, gray whales come every year from Alaska! Meanwhile, eastern Mexico’s coastal wetlands and rainforest regions are home to animals like quetzal birds and the mighty jaguar.

Government and Economy

Mexico is a federal presidential representative democratic republic, with a president as its head of state and a multi-party system for its legislative branch. The government is divided into three branches: the executive, legislative, and judicial. The president is elected for a single six-year term and serves as the head of state and government. The legislative branch has two chambers: the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. The judicial branch is responsible for interpreting and enforcing the law. Mexico operates as a federal system, with 31 states and one federal district, each with its own government. Rich natural resources boost Mexico’s economy. There are copper, silver, oil, and many different crops. There’s also a busy tourist industry.


The Olmec people formed a complex society in the southeastern region of Mexico. Their civilization dates back to around the 13th century B.C.E. Later, the Mayans, Toltecs, and Aztecs would leave their mark on Mexican history and culture. These societies built complicated cities and some of the most gigantic pyramids in the world. They also provided evidence that they were cultures that valued art and studied complicated things like astronomy. The Spanish arrived in Mexico during the sixteenth century. They brought diseases that the native people of Mexico had never been exposed to. These diseases and the Europeans other actions decimated the existing societies. Mexico ended up a Spanish colony and stayed under its rule until 1821.

Facts About Mexico

  • Mexico is the 11th most populous country in the world

  • The official language of Mexico is Spanish, but many indigenous languages are spoken throughout the country.

  • Mexico is known for its delicious cuisine.

  • The Aztecs and the Mayans are two ancient civilizations for which Mexico is still known today.

  • The Pyramid of the Sun in Teotihuacan is the largest pyramid in the world.

  • Much of the world’s silver supply comes from Mexico.

  • The beaches in Cancun and Cabo San Lucas are considered some of the most beautiful in the world and draw tourists from around the globe!

  • The country has a rich history of art, including traditional folk art, such as hand-woven textiles and pottery.

  • Many traditional styles of music using many different instruments, such as mariachi and the guitar, are part of the nation’s rich culture.

  • Mexico celebrates many unique festivals, including the Day of the Dead and Dia de los Muertos.

Additional Information on Mexico